by on August 11, 2020
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E sexual identity we PubMed ID:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28504977 analyzed the expression of sex-determination genes and isoforms from RNA-Seq data compared to those from 100 different lines of sexed D. melanogaster adults (Table 2). In Drosophila, the MSL complex (MSL-1, MSL-2, MSL-3, MLE proteins, and RoX1 and RoX2 non-coding RNAs) localizes to the X chromosome and hyper-activates gene expression to balance transcription levels to that of autosomes [43]. The alternative splicing of Sxl pre-mRNAs controls SXL protein production, which in turn regulates MSL formation by modulating msl-2 splicing and protein levels. Sxl also regulates sex differentiation via the splicing of transformer (tra) pre-mRNA [44,45]. Except for D9 cells, we observed that the two RNA components of Gardiquimod the male-specific MSL complex (roX1 and roX2) genes were expressed at female levels in the cell lines with X:A >0.75 (Kc167, 1182-4H, D8, D16-c3, and D17c3), suggesting that observed DNA-Seq copy number values were due to the female identity of the cells used to establish these cultures. Similarly, cell lines that hadTable 2 Sex chromosomes and sex-biased expressionCell line* Kc167 1182-4H D8 D16-c3 D17-c3 D9 D4-c1 BG3-c2 Cl.8 D20-c5 L1 mbn2 S2-DRSC S2R S3 Sg4 W2 Sa,bX:Aa 0.94 0.95 1.01 0.87 0.84 0.86 0.56 0.56 0.50 0.53 0.54 0.61 0.55 0.68 0.53 0.54 0.55 0.Y:Ab roX1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.63 0.34 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.24 0.41 5.19 0.Gene expression levels (FPKM)c roX2 1.17 0.11 0.Splicing events (PSI)d traF 9.04 16.67 7.99 16.75 6.93 6.35 0.32 0.54 0.msl-2 1.94 3.75 3.64 5.94 6.tra 0.22 0.52 0.35 0.38 0.74 0.87 0.99 1.00 1.Sxl 0.00 0.04 0.13 0.29 0.44 0.86 0.75 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 NA2.88 0.0.00 PubMed ID:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26173629 0.66.98 70.44 0.8.82 1.48 29.65 38.37 4.94 7.73 11.54 51.14.34 10.18 19.79 20.212.07 19.06 96.11.13 24.0.00 0.1.00 1.156.02 8.17 0.00 6.22.64 16.0.00 0.1.00 1.29.60 11.42 18.82 2.99 1.13.27 18.0.48 0.1.00 1.106.46 60.20 198.29.44 12.0.00 1.65 0.1.00 1.18.1.X or Y chromosome to Autosome ratio (mapped DNA density). c Expression levels of sex-specific genes. Expression levels are FPKM (fragments per kilobase per million reads) values. d Levels of splicing events are summarized. PSI, proportion spliced in. PSI values close to 1 represent male-like splicing, and PSI values close to 0 represent female-like splicing. * D20-c2 cell line: 0.53 for X:A, 0 for Y:A ratios (no RNA-Seq result). , Male or female characteristics, respectively, that are determined based on RNA-Seq analyses of 100 different fly lines (whole animals, P 0.75 showed female expression, while those with a ratio of <0.75 showed male expression (P < 0.01, t-test); however, there was some ambiguity. For example, D9 expressed intermediate levels of roX1, male levels of msl-2 and female tra. We suggest that in the majority of cases X chromosome karyotype is the result of the sex of the source animals, but where karyotype and sex differentiation status are ambiguous, the X chromosome copy number may be due to gains/losses during culture. Interestingly, both functionally redundant roX genes were expressed i.
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